Neo-Manueline Architecture

14 Jul
Neo-Manueline façade of Rossio Railway Station in Lisbon The Neo-Manueline Real Gabinete Portuguez de Leitura in Rio de Janeiro Pena Palace in Sintra by Ferdinand II between 1839 and 1849
Pena Palace in Sintra restoration of the Jerónimos Monastery in Lisbon during the 1860s, in which the Manueline monastery gained a new tower and annexes built in Neo-Manueline style Torre_de_Belem
     
Palace Hotel of Bussaco (1888-1907) Palace Hotel of Bussaco (1888-1907) Quinta da Regaleira in Sintra (1904-1910)
 
Neo-Manueline was a revival architecture and decorative arts style developed in Portugal between the middle of the XIX century and the beginning of the XX Century. The style adopted the characteristics of the Manueline (or Portuguese Final Gothic) of the XVI century.

The term manuelino was introduced in 1842 by Brazilian art historian Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen to designate the exuberant artistic style that developed during the reign of Manuel I of Portugal (1495-1521). The Manueline style coincided with the Age of Discovery and the peak of Portuguese maritime power. In the sequence of the Gothic Revival architecture fashion that spread for all over Europe since the middle of the XVIII century, the Manueline style was considered the most authentical Portuguese architectural style.

Neo-Manueline started with the construction of the Pena Palace in Sintra by Ferdinand II between 1839 and 1849. Another pioneering project was the restoration of the Jerónimos Monastery in Lisbon during the 1860s, in which the Manueline monastery gained a new tower and annexes built in Neo-Manueline style (which now house the Maritime Museum and the National Archaeology Museum). During this time the iconic Belém Tower was also restored with several Neo-Manueline additions.

Neo-Manueline eventually spread to the colonies and former Portuguese colonies. In Brazil there are several Neo-Manueline buildings, usually built by Portuguese associations. The most important of these is the Real Gabinete Português de Leitura (Royal Portuguese Library), built between 1880 and 1887 by Portuguese immigrants in the centre of Rio de Janeiro[4].

Other important Neo-Manueline buildings, in Portugal, are Rossio Railway Sation, Lisbon (1886-1890), Palace Hotel of Bussaco (1888-1907), the Sintra Town Hall (1906-1909), the Counts of Castro Guimarães Palace in Cascais (1900) and the Quinta da Regaleira in Sintra (1904-1910). The Neo-Manueline was also used in smaller buildings like private houses.

In Brazil, apart from the Real Gabinete Português de Leitura (Royal Portuguese Library), Rio de Janeiro (1880-1887), Neo-Manueline buildings include the Portuguese Center in Santos (Centro Português de Santos, 1898-1901), the Portuguese Library of Bahia (1915-1918) and the Portuguese Literary Liceum (Liceu Literário Português) in Rio de Janeiro (1938).

Other examples of Neo-Manueline buildings can also be found in African and Asian territories of the former Portuguese Colonial Empire.

There are also some examples of Neo-Manueline style in countries that were not directly related with the Portuguese culture. A fine example is Morozov Palace (1894-1898) in Moscow, Russia.

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